Make Smarter Business Decisions With Pro Forma Financial Statements

pro forma financial statements

Your assumptions could wind up wrong, throwing off your financial projections. The purchase of a sole proprietorship, partnership, Sub-Chapter S corporation, or business segment requires pro forma statements for a series of years in order to reflect adjustments for such items as owners’ or partners’ salaries and income taxes.

The pro forma balance sheet might change if the new facility adds to the company’s property, plant, and equipment entries. And if the company uses debt to fund the project, there might also be a substantial loan balance on the liabilities side of the balance sheet. Pro forma financial statements might show the expected impact of any projects in the pipeline. For example, they may assume a company plans to build a new facility to produce more goods for customers. A pro forma financial statement is supposed to include reasonably accurate information.

pro forma financial statements

The pro forma accounting is a statement of the company’s financial activities while excluding “unusual and nonrecurring transactions” when stating how much money the company actually made. To start creating a pro forma statement, begin with an income statement from the current year.

Balance Sheet Analysis

When you seek investment, you can present a pro forma financial statement which indicates how you’ll use the investment capital to grow your business sustainably. The balance sheet is a summary of a company’s assets, liabilities, and shareholders’ equity during a specific period. It is a great way to see the financial health of a company at a glance and is an essential pro forma statement to have when approaching investors. This is not a license for entrepreneurs to inflate or make up numbers at will. Investors will perform due diligence and any inconsistencies will be uncovered. It is absolutely necessary that pro forma financial statements are presented with assumptions clearly stated and a robust line of reasoning behind each figure.

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GAAP statements were considered to provide a more faithful representation of the company’s true financial health, which is consistent with concerns that management might use pro forma reports to distort the company’s financial health. Respondents did perceive some value in pro forma statements in terms of providing relevant and timely information and in having predictive value and feedback value. Nonetheless, GAAP statements still scored slightly better in these categories, and significantly better in the areas of verifiability, neutrality, comparability, and consistency. A pro forma balance sheet summarizes the projected future status of a company after a planned transaction, based on the current financial statements. As discussed in Note 2 to the pro forma financial statements, the pro forma adjustments reflect management’s assumptions that the elimination of duplicate facilities would have resulted in a 30 percent reduction in operating costs. Management could not supply us with sufficient evidence to support this assertion.

The pro forma accounting is a statement of the company’s financial activities while excluding «unusual and nonrecurring transactions» when stating how much money the company actually made. Examples of expenses often excluded from pro forma results are company restructuring costs, a decline in the value of the company’s investments, or other accounting charges, such as adjusting the current balance sheet to fix faulty accounting practices in previous years.

Pro forma financial statements are not computed using GAAP and are often called non-GAAP. GAAP-adjusted statements are uniform financial statements guided by rules of the Financial Accounting Standard Board . They differ from pro forma statements in that they are not projections, but rather historical reports — therefore, they do not consider things like litigation costs, restructuring charges, and other one-time items. Pro forma statements are used for a full range of financial analysis and should be created at the beginning of every financial planning cycle or whenever an organization is considering a step that could have a significant financial impact. They are often examined when a company is contemplating a merger, new financing , capital investment in plant or other fixed assets, expanding production, launching a new product line, or any other situation with important financial implications.

What Is Pro Forma Income Statement?

The practitioner typically would obtain more evidence in an examination engagement than in a review engagement. Examples of evidence that the practitioner might consider obtaining are purchase, merger or exchange agreements, appraisal reports, debt agreements, employment agreements, actions of the board of directors, and existing or proposed legislation or regulatory actions. The related pro forma adjustments do not give appropriate effect to those assumptions.

  • Our review was conducted in accordance with attestation standards established by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants.
  • To a large extent, this has been the intended function of disclosures in a company’s Management’s Discussion and Analysis section of its reports.
  • To create the forward-looking pro forma income statement, you’ll need projections from all areas of the business including projected income from all sales channels and projected costs for all operating expenses.
  • Savvy investors understand that enterprising entrepreneurs will puff up the potential success of their ventures.
  • Since the dot-com bubble burst, the SEC has cracked down on using pro forma financials to protect the public from being misled.
  • By creating pro forma reports for a variety of scenarios, you can see how a decision will have an impact on your bottom line and make your decisions accordingly.
  • Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the pro forma financial information based on our examination.

In some countries, customs may accept a pro forma invoice if the required commercial invoice is not available at the time when filing entry documents at the port of entry to get goods released from customs. The U.S. Customs and Border Protection, for example, uses pro forma invoices to assess duty and examine goods, but the importer on record is required to post a bond and produce a commercial invoice within 120 days from the date of entry.

The loss your business incurs because of the cat widgets really makes a big dent in your income, so you decide to stop manufacturing and selling cat widgets. Now you have to liquidate inventory, sell your machinery, and wind down relationships with cat widget vendors. A correction of an error made in a report or filing of a previous period. Review proposed decisions in marketing, production, research and development, etc., and assess their impact on profitability and liquidity. Empower your people to go above and beyond with a flexible platform designed to match the needs of your team — and adapt as those needs change.

Navs Final Word:  Pro Forma Financial Statements

It’s considered a snapshot in time since it’s not a consolidation report of weeks, months, or quarters. They have multiple uses for multiple scenarios, ranging from simple sales growth projections to more intricate M&A or investment purposes. Whatever you’re using them for, just make sure that you’re organized, detailed, and accurate throughout.

A pro forma income statement is an effective way to gain the attention of potential investors, convince them on your growth plans and seek funding. Companies are generally prohibited from creating misleading or fraudulent pro forma financial statements.

An Example Of Pro Forma

Income statements would show how much it would cost a company to pursue the project and how much revenues might improve after completion. Some pro forma financial statements of the most commonly used financial statements for pro forma are the income statement, the cash flow statement, and the balance sheet.

pro forma financial statements

Your costs, on the other hand, will include items such as lease expense, utilities, employee pay, insurance, licenses, permits, materials, taxes, etc. Be sure to put a great deal of thought into each expense and keep your estimates realistic. Shares as adjusted to reflect the issuance of 51,000,000 shares of common stock offered by The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc., which reflects the exercise, in full, of the underwriters’ options to purchase 9,000,000 shares of common stock. Net proceeds from the offerings reflect the deduction of underwriting discounts and of estimated expenses payable by Goldman Sachs in connection with the offerings. Adjustment to reflect a pro forma provision for income taxes for Goldman Sachs in corporate form at an effective tax rate of 41%.

When To Use Pro Forma Financial Statements

Pro forma statements reflect a dynamic environment in which change is still possible and a variety of different alternatives can be followed. They take the same forms as historical statements, the most common being the income statement, the balance sheet, and the statement of changes in financial position. X Company’s management is responsible for the pro forma financial information. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the pro forma financial information based on our examination. The Securities and Exchange Commission , the United States’ regulator of its stock market, requires pro forma statements with any filing, registration, or proxy statement. They have articles governing the preparation of pro forma financial statements for public companies. These are Regulation S-X Article 11, and Regulation S-X 8-05 for smaller companies from 17 CFR 210.

Pro forma financial statements show the consequences of financial choices in the context of the financial statements. These statements are distinct from typical financial statements because, while the former has not happened the latter—the typical financial statement—reports on the real financial circumstances of a business. Survey participants were first asked the general question, “How would you compare the usefulness of pro forma earnings statements to the usefulness of earnings prepared in accordance with GAAP in making financial decisions? ” Nearly two-thirds of respondents (63%) indicated that pro forma reports were less useful than those prepared according to GAAP, and only 8% indicated that pro forma reports were more useful than GAAP reports. As primary users of earnings announcement information, individual investors have a huge stake in whether it is ultimately harmful or helpful. In order to gather information on current and potential individual investors’ attitudes toward pro forma reporting, the authors surveyed 79 MBA students, 60% of which currently own stock (with an average of 3.7 years of investing experience).

A complete balance sheet can be put together using this method, but you should be aware of its shortfalls. In contrast, pro forma earnings statements in current usage have come to mean that many items are excluded from the calculation of net income at the discretion of management. These items may include charges or gains for certain items that are noncash or that management regards as one-time or irrelevant to the core operations of the company. Expenses commonly excluded from pro forma earnings include restructuring charges, amortization of certain intangible assets, and noncash expenses paid with equity. Commonly excluded gains include unrealized investment gains and gains from one-time sales of assets. Whether the business is well-seasoned or in its infancy, taking the time to model assumptions and examine trends can greatly improve the accuracy of future financial projections. Participation by such partnerships satisfies all conditions to consummation of the roll-up transaction.

  • Beginning with the income statement, income will increase if she works a second job or goes to Vegas and wins, while expenses will increase if she goes to Vegas at all.
  • Sometimes, pro forma figures differ vastly from those generated within a GAAP framework, as pro forma results will make adjustments to GAAP numbers to highlight important aspects of the company’s operating performance.
  • In that case, you can use a financing pro forma projection to make your case.
  • Once you understand the purpose, importance, and practicality of making pro forma income statements, you can draft them.
  • Therefore, in addition to the pro forma statement showing historical earnings, the new company will make pro forma provision for the taxes that it would have paid had it been a regular corporation in the past.
  • Bench gives you a dedicated bookkeeper supported by a team of knowledgeable small business experts.

The bill undergoes the first reading, but a second reading is not moved unlike normal bills. However, departing from British and Canadian tradition, the contents of the bills do address the matters referred to in its title, and could theoretically be enacted like any other normal bill. This practice does not extend to the Australian Senate; instead other formal business is conducted before consideration of the governor-general’s speech.

Historical With Acquisition Pro Forma Template

If combined, footnote explanation should disaggregate the various transactions in a reasonable fashion. Fn 3 For further guidance on the presentation of pro forma financial information included in filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission , see Article 11 of Regulation S-X. The source of the historical financial information on which the pro forma financial information is based has been appropriately identified. Evaluate whether pro forma adjustments are included for all significant effects directly attributable to the transaction . The components of a balance sheet are assets, liabilities, and equity.

  • Using pro forma statements that aren’t marked as such to misrepresent your business to investors, the IRS, or financial institutions can be penalized by the Securities and Exchange Commission).
  • The Pro Forma Consolidated Balance Sheet Information was prepared as if the Pro Forma Adjustments had occurred as of February 26, 1999.
  • During the course of the fiscal period, management evaluates its performance by comparing actual results to the expectations of the accepted plan using a similar pro forma format.
  • Finance professionals and business owners need to consider all the likely scenarios that affect the finances of a company in order to come up with accurate financial forecasts.
  • Basically, companies use their own discretion in calculating pro forma earnings, including or excluding items depending on what they feel accurately reflects the company’s true performance.
  • A budget may also be considered a variation on pro forma financial statements, since it presents the projected results of an organization during a future period, based on certain assumptions.

There are no universal rules that companies must follow when reporting pro forma earnings. This is why it is important for investors to distinguish between pro forma earnings and those reported using generally accepted accounting principles . GAAP enforces strict guidelines when companies report earnings, but pro forma figures are better thought of as «hypothetical» earnings, computed according to the relevance of certain events or conditions. For this reason, investors must examine not only the pro forma earnings, but also GAAP earnings, and never mistake one for the other.

Nonetheless, we are concerned that «pro forma» financial information, under certain circumstances, can mislead investors if it obscures GAAP results. Because this «pro forma» financial information by its very nature departs from traditional accounting conventions, its use can make it hard for investors to compare an issuer’s financial information with other reporting periods and with other companies. Adjustments reflected in the pro forma adjustments column should give effect to events that are directly attributable to each specific transaction and factually supportable. Adjustments should include those items that have a continuing impact and also those that are nonrecurring. Also known as a profit and loss statement, this accounting document shows sales transactions and expenses, as well as cost of goods or services sold and projected net income and profit.

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